Hormones:the first step

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The skin on the body surface, mucous membrane of the gastrointestinal tract and airway, etc., are the border between inside and outside the body

The border between inside and outside the body
The skin on the body surface, mucous membrane of the gastrointestinal tract and airway, etc., are the border between inside and outside the body. Thus, places that can be reached WITHOUT rupturing the skin nor mucous membranes from outside are OUTSIDE the body border. Oral cavity, inside the airway and alveoli, inside the gastrointestinal tract and gall bladder, inside the mammary duct, inside the bladder, etc., are outside the body border. On the other hand, places that can be reached by rupturing the skin or mucous membrane are INSIDE the body border. Inside the blood vessels, the brain, chest cavity, etc., are inside the body border.

Inside all of the intestinal tract where food goes through without rupturing mucous membrane is "outside" the body border.

Inside the airway where air flows without rupturing mucous membrane is "outside" the body border.

Achievement Quiz
1. Inside the airway is [ a. inside / b. outside ]the body border.

2. Inside the blood vessels is [ a. inside / b. outside ]the body border.

3. Inside the ureter is [ a. inside / b. outside ]the body border.

4. Inside the digestive tract is [ a. inside / b. outside ]the body border.

5. Inside the brain is [ a. inside / b. outside ]the body border.
Anser
1. The correct answer is b. Please remember that 'outside the body border' is a place that can be reached WITHOUT rupturing the skin nor mucous membranes from outside. . We don't rupture any skin or mucous membrane everytime we breathe in, do we?

2. The correct answer is a. Please remember that 'outside the body border' is a place that can be reached WITHOUT rupturing the skin nor mucous membranes from outside. Blood vessels are closed areas, so skin and mucous membranes need to be ruptured in order to get inside the blood vessels.

3. The correct answer is b. Please remember that 'outside the body border' is a place that can be reached WITHOUT rupturing the skin nor mucous membranes from outside. Does urine from kidney going through ureter rupture any mucous membranes to be excreted? Also, there are some points where ureter and urinary bladder are narrow, but the urine need to widen, not rupture, the mucous membrane. Therefore, the answer is 'outside the body border'.

4. The correct answer is b. Please remember that 'outside the body border' is a place that can be reached WITHOUT rupturing the skin nor mucous membranes from outside. Food goes through 'outside the body border' from mouth to anus.

5. The correct answer is a, 'inside the body border'. Please remember that 'outside the body border' is a place that can be reached WITHOUT rupturing the skin nor mucous membranes from outside. No matter how you try, by opening up the nose or through the ears, you definitely need to rupture skin and mucous membranes to reach inside the brain.
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