Hormones:the first step

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Hormones in one word
In this text, hormones will be devided into 4 groups.

1. Hormones that doesn't relate much to posterior lobe of pituitary gland
2. Posterior lobe hormone
3. Anterior lobe hormones, part 1
4. Anteriot lobe hormones, part 2

The subject about grouping of hormones will be written later. The effects of hormones that are controlled by the "concentration-oriented regulation" system are important like growth, sexual maturation, energizer, but don't have much to do with maintaining life. On the other hand, effects of hormones that are controlled by "effect-orieted regulation" are like osmotic pressure of blood plasma, or controlling the blood sugar which have a lot to do with maintaining life.

Hormones in one word

Groups Names of hormones Secreting glands Effects in one word Regulating system
Doesn't relate much to posterior lobe of pituitary gland mineral corticoid
(Aldosterone)
adrenal cortex increases the amount of Na+/increase in blood pressure E
catecholamine adrenal medulla hormone for excersises E
carcitonin thyroid gland decreases the Ca concentration of plasma E
parathormone accessory thyroid increases the Ca concentration of plasma E
insuline pancreas decreases blood sugar E
glucagon pancreas increases blood sugar E
erythropoietin kidney hematogenesis (production of red blood cells) E
posterior lobe oxitocin posterior lobe contraction of smooth muscles in the female sex organ C
Vasopressin antidiuretic hormone(ADH) posterior lobe decrease in plasma osmotic pressure E
pituitary gland anterior lobe Part 1 thyroid hormone thyroid gland energizer C
glucocorticoid adrenal cortex anti-inflammation C
testosterone testis masculinization C
estrogen ovarian follicle in ovary feminization C
luteal hormone luteal body in ovary support of endometrium and elevation in basal body temperature C
lactotropic hormone anterior lobe of pituitary gland stimulizes ovarian follicle C
luteinizing hormone anterior lobe of pituitary gland builds up luteal body C
placenta human chorionic gonadtropin placenta stops menstruation in early pregnancy by increasing the secretion of luteal hormone C
anterior lobe of pituitary gland part 2 growth hormone anterior lobe of pituitary gland increase in height C
prolactin anterior lobe of pituitary gland produces milk C
C: ' Concentration-oriented regulation'
E: 'Effect-oriented regulation'
Achievement Quiz
1. The effects of thyroid hormone are hypermetabolism, psychomotor activation, etc. Also, the secretion of thyroid hormone is controlled by 'concentration-oriented regulation'. With hypometabolism, the secretion of thyroid hormone increase. [ a. right / b. wrong ]

2. If secretion of thyroid hormone decreases and concentration of blood plasma decreases, the substance that increases the secretion will [ a. increase / b. decrease ] .

3. If secretion of thyroid hormone increases and concentration of blood plasma increases, the substance that increases the secretion will [ a. increase / b. decreases ] .

4. The secretion of calcitonin is controlled by the 'effect-oriented regulation'. Also, the effect of calcitonin is the decrease in the plasma concentration of calcium. With high plasma concentration of calcium, the secretion of calcitonin [ a. increase / b. decrease ] .

5. The secretion of calcitonin is controlled by the 'effect-oriented regulation'. Also, the effect of calcitonin is the decrease in the plasma concentration of calcium.If the plasma concentration of calcium decrease, the secretion of calcitonin [ a. increase / b. decrease ] .

6. Aldosterone has the effect to increase the amount of Na+in the plasma, and is controlled by 'effect-oriented regulation'. If the amount of plasma Na+decreases and the blood pressure goes down, the secretion of aldosterone [ a. increases / b. decreases ] .

7. The secretion of insulin is controlled by 'effect-oriented regulation'. Also, the effect of insulin is the decrease in blood sugar. If the blood sugar is too low, the secretion of insulin [ a. increases / b. decreases ] .

8. The secretion of insulin is controlled by 'effect-oriented regulation'. Also, the effect of insulin is the decrease in blood sugar. When blood sugar is too high, the secretion of insulin [ a. increases / b. decreases ] .

9. The secretion of glucagon is controlled by 'effect-oriented regulation'. Also, the effect of glucagon is increase in blood sugar. When blood sugar is too low, the secretion of glucagon [ a. increases / b. decreases ] .

10. When blood sugar is too high, the secretion of glucagon [ a. increases / b. decreases ] .

11. Sex hormones are controlled by 'concentration-oriented regulation'. Does sexual development play a role in the negative feedback system? [ a. Yes, it does. / b. No, it doesn't. ] .

12. The effect of sexual hormones are sexual development. Also, the secretion of sex hormones are controlled by 'concentration-oriented regulation'. Does the secretion of sex hormones decrease with sexual development? [ a. Yes, it does. / b. No, it doesn't. ]

13. The effect of growth hormone is increase in height. Also, the secretion of growth hormone is controlled by 'concentration-oriented regulation'. Does the secretion of growth hormone decrease with increase in height? [ a. Yes, it does. / b. No, it doesn't. ]

14. The effect of prolactin is producing milk. Also, the secretion of prolactin is controlled by 'concentration-oriented regulation'. Does the secretion of prolactin decrease with lactation? [ a. Yes, it does. / b. No, it doesn't. ]

15. The secretion of erythropoietin will [ a. increase / b. decrease ] with anemia.

16. Plasma osmotic pressure increased as the result of sweating a lot. The secretion of vasopressin will [ a. increase / b. decrease ] .

17. The effects of progesterone are support of endometrium and elevation in basal body temperature. Also, progesterone is controlled by 'concentration-oriented regulation'. When elvation in basal body temperature occurs, the secretion of progesterone [ a. increases / b. stays the same / c. decreases ] .

18. Compared to the hormones that are regulated by the "effect-orientated" system, those that are regulated by the "concentration-orientated" system are [ a. more / b. less ] likely to affect factors that are directly involved in the maintenance of vital force (such as blood sugar concentration).
Answer
1. The correct answer is b. Were effects monitored by 'concentration-oriented regulation'

2. The correct answer is a. The secretion of thyroid hormone is controlled by 'concentration-oriented regulation', right? Then, when the secretion of thyroid hormone decreases, the plasma concentration of thyroid hormone decreases, so the negative feedback system works. How did that work? Remember: little 'result' a lot of 'cause', a lot of 'result' little 'cause'. Let's think about it again.

3. The correct answer is b. Wouldn't that be a positive feedback?

4. The correct answer is a. If calcitonin, which decreases the plasma concentration of calcium, decreases when plasma concentration of calcium is hight, wouldn't that increase the amount of calcium even more?

5. The correct answer is b. If calcitonin, which decreases the plasma concentration of calcium, increases when plasma concentration of calcium is low, wouldn't that decrease the amount of calcium even more?

6. The correct answer is a. In 'effect-oriented regulation', the effect of the hormone plays the role in the feedback system, which means the secretion and the plasma concentration increases when there is little effect. On the other hand, when there is too much effect, the secretion and the plasma concentration of the hormone decreases. In this question, the effect--to increase the amount of Na+ in plasma--is decreasing, so...

7. The correct answer is b. If insulin, which decreases blood sugar, increases when blood sugar is already low, wouldn't that be a positive feedback?

8. The correct answer is a. This would be a positive feedback. Please go over the text again. If you still don't get it, send an e-mail to 'shibuya@med.showa-u.ac.jp'.

9. The correct answer is a. Please go over the text again.

10. The correct answer is b. That would be a positive feedback!!

11. The correct answer is b. Sexual development is the 'effect' of sex hormones, right? What happens in the 'concentration-oriented regulation'?

12. The correct answer is b. Please go over the differences of 'effect-oriented regulation' and the 'concentration-oriented regulation'.

13 The correct answer is b. Please go over the differences of 'effect-oriented regulation' and the 'concentration-oriented regulation'.

14. The correct answer is b.

15. The correct answer is a. What plays the role in feedback system for erythropoietin? In the question, did that increase or decrease?

16. The correct answer is a. Increase in plasma osmotic pressure means there isn't enough effect of vasopressin, which is to decrease the plasma osmotic pressure. Wouldn't that be a good reason for the negative feedback system to work to increqse the secretion of vasopressin?

17. The correct answer is b. It's 'concentration-oriented regulation'!

18. The correct answer is b. Please go over the 'hormones in one word' table again.
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